How Steel is made in modern days?

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    Reinforcement steel is one of the important elements in the framed concrete structure. Reinforcement helps increase the tensile strength of the concrete and helps prevent brittle failure of the concrete structure. Before going further let us know something a little bit extra about steel

Who Invented Steel? 

    The normal iron was invented by the "Han Dynasty of China". The Formation of steel by adding carbon with iron was invented only in the 13th Century BC. However, steel was expensive because of difficult manufacturing. Henry Bessemer created the Bessemer's process which reduced the cost of steel production from the steel to rule over steel than crude iron. But nowadays more new modern methods of production evolved for the manufacturing of steel with the help of adding chromium.

How Steel is Made Nowadays?

    Modern method such as "Basic oxygen Steel Making" and “Electric Arc Furnace" was used.

Basic oxygen steel Making

    Basic oxygen process (BOP), is a steelmaking method in which pure oxygen is blown into a bath of molten blast-furnace iron and scrap. The oxygen initiates a series of intensively exothermic (heat-releasing) reactions, including the oxidation of such impurities as carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and manganese.

Electric Arc Furnace

    About one-quarter of the world’s steel is produced by the electric-arc method, which uses high-current electric arcs to melt steel scrap and convert it into liquid steel of a specified chemical composition and temperature. External arc heating permits better thermal control than does the basic oxygen process, in which heating is accomplished by the exothermic oxidation of elements contained in the charge. This allows larger alloy additions to be made than are possible in basic oxygen steelmaking. However, electric-arc steelmaking is not as oxidizing and slag-metal mixing is not as intense; therefore, electric-arc steels normally have carbon contents higher than 0.05%

How Steel is different from iron?

    The main difference between iron and steel is that the former is a naturally occurring element, while the latter is an alloy of iron and carbon — something that doesn't naturally occur. Steel is stronger than iron in the domains of yield and tensile strength, but it's also significantly tougher.


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