How Bridges are build in water

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Constructing a bridge across water bodies like rivers or lakes is a task and constructing them over a moving water body like high flowing river or a wave-producing ocean shore is a a bit more challenging. But still, humankind needs it and they are ready to take up the challenge. To construct bridges in water bodies there are so many methods such as the Battered pile method, and cofferdams. 

Battered pile method 

 Battered Pile

    In the Battered pile method, the pile is driven into the bottom of the water body until it gets battered(out of shape) i.e. a slanted/ angled pile.

But How?

    Battered means out of shape, so the pile needs to be driven until it gets out of shape.
Components of Battered Pile Installation

1. Barge
2. Pile driver


    A Barge is a flat-bottom boat that was specially made for the transportation of goods and equipment in shallow water bodies like rivers and lakes. 

A barge carrying goods in a river pulled by a small riverboat

Pile drive

    A pile driver is a device that is used for the erection of the pile deep into the earth deep enough until the pile reaches the hard strata of the earth.

Hammer Pile Driver

Installation Process      

The pile that is needed for the Battered pile gets transported through the barge along with the pile driving equipment to the required position. Then the barge is placed correctly on the perfect spot where the pile needs to be driven. Then the pile driver is placed in the required position to erect the pile. The Pile is driven using hammering, jacked, or vibrating deep into the earth until it reaches the hard strata of the earth. The pile needs to be kept on driving until it gets battered to take up even the lateral loads from the flowing water body.   
After the pile length has reached the surface or the desired height the pile cap is provided and the pier is constructed above the pile cap that supports the bridge span.

These were the temporary structures that were constructed to work in the water bodies at a reasonable dry condition. They may be boxes or rectangular or circular in shape. They were greatly used for the construction of dams, bridge piers, etc.,

What they are made off    

Cofferdams were constructed by using the sheet piles in a well orderly airtight manner. The cofferdams can be constructed by the method of interlocking the sheet piles or by welding the sheet piles. They can also be used constructed on the land and placed in the water where we need to do the work in the water body.   
After all these arrangements, the water inside the cofferdams was pumped out until the ground of the water body was visible. Hence we can get the relatively dry working condition.

 A Cofferdam was constructed at the shore to prevent the seepage of water


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